Troubleshooting a failed build

As noted in the CUPC2C build instructions any build failure experienced with make -j[N] should be retried with just make. If that is not sufficient to recover, the following are some known failure modes and possible resolutions:

Out-of-memory when linking

Even without parallel make, it is possible that the link steps may require excessive memory on some systems. On a Linux system, failure mode can often be distinguished by messages similar to either of the following:

collect2: fatal error: ld terminated with signal 9 [Killed]
compilation terminated.


clang: error: unable to execute command: Killed
clang: error: linker command failed due to signal (use -v to see invocation)

Possible work-arounds include:

  • Retry make after attempting to maximize resource limits as follows.
    For bash or zsh:
    $ ulimit -d hard
    $ ulimit -m hard
    $ ulimit -f hard
    $ ulimit -s hard
    $ ulimit -t hard
    $ ulimit -v hard  # omit on macOS

    For tcsh:

    $ unlimit
  • On systems where they are available, use of the gold or lld linkers may dramatically reduce the memory required to link. You can try running the following in [BLDDIR] to modify the configuration, where [LINKER] is either gold or lld, followed by make to resume the build from the point at which it had previously failed.
    $ cmake -S [SRCDIR] \
          -DCMAKE_EXE_LINKER_FLAGS=-fuse-ld=[LINKER] \
    $ make

    If the chosen linker is not supported, this command will just result in different link failures. One can restore the default behavior by giving empty values for the CMAKE_*_LINKER_FLAGS settings:

    $ cmake -S [SRCDIR] \
  • If passing the recommended -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=Release to cmake, try using the MinSizeRel build type instead. This results in smaller code, at a slight cost in the performance of source-to-source translation. However, this has no impact on the quality or performance of translated UPC code. This can be done by modifying the configuration without starting over.
    $ cmake -S [SRCDIR] -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=MinSizeRel
    $ make
  • If passing a -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE other than Release or MinSizeRel to cmake, consider using the build type with the least debugging and greatest optimization which can meet your needs. Description of the build types supported by CMake and the LLVM infrastructure is beyond the scope of this document.